FIQH (ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE) ON PRAYER

 

Shi'a Sunnah

 

Ithna Ashari: 282,000,000 Hanafi: 380,000,000

Zaidi: A few millions Maaliki: 305,000,000

Isma’ili: A few millions Shafi’i: 190,000,000

Hanbali: 52,000,000

FIQH

Each of the Shi’a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh. The Fiqh is the summation of the rules and regulations formulated by the leader of the Madh’hab according to certain methodology (format) formulated by that Madh’hab. Since each Madh’hab has its particular Fiqh, the rules of one Madh’hab may differ in subtle or not so subtle ways from other Madh’habs. A Hanafi may differ from a Shafi’I and Hanbali, a Maaliki may differ from Hanafi or Shafi’i or Shi’a. The Shi’a may differ from most of the Sunni Madh’habs, or be in agreement with 3 out of 4 in some aspects. In this publication some outstanding matter in the technique of performing the Salat are explained.

EXPLAINING THE TABLES:

The subject of Salat has been divided into categories, each category is put in a table. To have more detail about some points the reader is referred to the specific items that appear below that table. These items explain the rules (Ah’kaam) of different Madh’habs. Thus it is recommended that the reader pays special attention to the rules in the items and compare them with those appearing in the table itself.

TABLE III, SALAT PRELIMINARIES, ATHAN:

PRELIMINARIES

ATHAN

THE SHI’A:

ITHNA ASHARI

THE SUNNI

THE 4 SCHOOLS

ALLAAHU AKBAR

(Allah is the Greatest)

To be said 4 times

Variable numbers depending on the Madh’hab. See item 5, (Takbiraat), below.

ASH’HADU ANN LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH

(I declare there is no Deity except Allah)

To be said 2 times

To be said 2 times

ASH’HADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN RASOOLUL-LLAH

(I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah)

To be said 2 times

To be said 2 times

PRELIMINARIES

ATHAN

THE SHI’A:

ITHNA ASHARI

THE SUNNI

THE 4 SCHOOLS

HAYYA ALA SALAAH

(Hasten for Salat)

To be said 2 times

To be said 2 times

HAYYA ALA FALAAH

(Hasten toward eternal bliss)

To be said 2 times

To be said 2 times

HAYYA ALA KHAYR AL-AMAL

(Hasten for the best deeds)

To be said 2 times

Not said. See item 7, (Khayr Al-Amal), below.

ALLAAHU AKBAR

Allah is the Greatest

To be said 2 times

To be said 2 times

LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH

To be said 2 times

To be said once

AL-SALATU KHAYRUN MINA NAWM

(Salat is better than sleep)

Not said.

To be said 2 times. See item 8 (Nawm), below.

4. Athan, a must or otherwise: Shi’a, Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafi’I say Athan is a Sunnah, near Wajib (a Must). Al-Hanbali on the other hand regards Athan as Fardh, while many of its followers regard it as Sunnah.

5. Takbiraat: All say Takbiraat 4 times except the Maaliki who say it 2 times.

6. Wali: As an option (even Mustahab) the Shi’a say Ali is the devotee of Allah twice. None of the Sunni Madh’habs say it. Many Shi’a do not say it either.

7. Khayr Al-Amal: To say hayya Ala Khayr al-amal is a must (Wajib) for the Shi’a, since this was said by the Prophet (PBUH), Abu Bakr, and early days of Omar’s Khilaafah, as well as cotninued by Ibn Omar, Ali ibn Al-Husain, Zayd ibn Arqam, Imam Ali and numerous others. This was stopped by order of Khalifa Omar since according to his Ij’tihaad he was afraid that saying it in Athan or Iqaama would discourage Muslims from emphasizing Jihad (See Al-Bahr Al-Zaakhir, Vol. 1, Page 192. Also Al-Muhalla, Vol. 3, Page 160).

None of the Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi’I, or Hanbali say it.

8. Nawm: Because this was not said at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) the Shi’a do not say it in their Athan or Iqaama. The phrase of (Salat is better than sleeping) was introduced by Khalifa Omar. (See Mu’watta Malik, in Masabih Al-Sunnah, Al-Baghwi, Vol. 1, Page 37). This became a routine afterwards by Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali. Imam Ali said not to increase in the Athan what was not intended in it.

Shafi’I: It is Mak’rooh (detestable) to say the phrase.

IQAAMA While the Shi’a utter the Iqaama like their Athan but with every phrase twice said, and the last phrase once, the Sunni Madh’habs have differed remarkably in the number of times the phrases (be they Takbiraat or others) are said.

SALAT

ITSELF

THE SHI’A:

Ithna Ashari (Ja’fari)

THE SUNNI

The 4 schools

INTENTION, TAKBIR, WUQOOF)

Takbir Iftitah: A Must (Rukn)

Variable depending on the Madh’hab. See item 9, (Takbir Iftitah), below.

ARMS’ POSITION

Arms not to be folded.

Arms to be folded. See item 10, (Arms), below.

(BAS’MALAH):

Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim.

Bas’malah has to be said before Fatiha or any other Surah, preferably loudly.

Variable ways depending on the Madh’hab. See item 11, (Bas’malah), below.

AMEN

Not to be said after Surah Al-Fatiha while in Salat

To be said after Fatiha in Salat. See item 12, (Amen), below.

COMPLETE SURAH AFTER AL-FATIHA

Reading no less than a complete Surah after Fatiha.

May read part of Surah after Fatiha. See item 13, (Surah), below.

THIRD & FOURTH RAK’A

Reading Al-Fatiha or saying 3 times: Subhaana Allah wal Hamdu Lillaah, wa la Ilaaha Illa Allah wa Allah Akbar

Saying Surah Al-Fatiha.

RUKOO

To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Al-Adheemi wa Bi-Hamdih.

Subhaana Rabbiya Al-Adheem

SUJOOD

To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Al-A’la wa Bi-Hamdih

Subhaana Rabbiya Al-A’la.

QUNOOT

Highly preferable; Qunoot is done before Rukoo of the second Rak’a (Usually a Du’aa from the Quran).

Qunoot is done in Salat of Witr and others. See item 14, (Qunoot), below.

JULOOS (Forefinger)

During Tashah’hud no pointing with the forefinger or moving it in circles

To point with the forefinger or move it in circles. See item 15 (forefinger), below.

JULOOS (Feet position)

Sitting comfortably on the bent feet.

Sitting on folded left foot, big toe of right foot to touch the ground. See item 16, (Toe), below.

TASHAH’HUD

Wording of Tashah’hud are specific as Ahlul Bayt quoted the Prophet (PBUH).

Wording of Tashah’hud as taught by Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masood, or Ibn Omar quoting the Prophet (PBUH). See item 17, (Tashah’hud), below.

TASLEEM

Wording of Tasleem are specific as Ahlul Bayt quoted the Prophet (PBUH).

Wording of Tasleem are specific to various Madh’habs. See item 18, (Tasleem), below.

9. Takbir Iftitah: To say Allaahu Akbar after the intention to pray is Wajib (a Must) with the Shi’a, Maaliki, and Hanbali.

The Hanafi may say any of the wordings of Al-Asmaa al-Husna, yet Abu Yusuf prefer the Shi’a ruling.

The Shafi’i may say Allah Al-Akbar (they have added Al, meaning the). See Shar’h Al-Mu’watta, Al-Baji, Vol. 1, Page 142. Also Al-Mugni, Ibn Qidaamah, Vol. 1, Page 460).

10. Arms: The Shi’a, along with the Maliki do not fold their arms while in Wuqoof, though it is allowed if believed as an option of reverence on the part of the person praying. Some Shi’a authorities even regard it as an invalidator of the Salat (if done thinking this is the correct way). (See Al-Maj’moo’, Vol. 1, page 312). It is said that folding the arms was started after the Prophet (PBUH).

Hanafi, Shafi’I, and Hanbali: Regard folding the arms as preferable (Mustahab) as a sign of reverence, therefore, they subscribe for folding the arms during Wuqoof, however, they differ in the manner the right arm is to be put on the left, whether on lower chest or its upper, in a female different from a male.

Maaliki regards folding the arms, if done, as allowed, but not a Sunnah.

11. Bas’malah: While the Shi’a start the Surahs by saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim (Bas’malah), as part of the Surah, they are to say it loud enough to be heard. The Prophet (PBUH) used to start Al-Fatiha with Bas’malah but Mu’awiya was the culprit in deleting it. (See Al-Umm, Al-Shafi’I, Vol. 1, Page 108).

Hanafi, and Maaliki: They regard Bas’malah as not part of Surah Fatiha, so they read Surah Al-Fatiha without it, though they have the option to say it. However, they say Bas’malah with the subsequent Surahs. Also, the Hanafi and Hanbali can read it without being heard. Maaliki would not read at all.

Shafi’I and Hanbali: Regard Bas’malah as part and parcel of Al-Fatiha, and has to be said loudly. (See Al-Uddah, Vol. 2, Box 410. Also Al-Mun’taqa, Vol. 1, page 151).

12. Amen: Because Amen is a Hebrew word, the Shi’a’s Fiqh prohibits saying it during Salat, otherwise, their Salat becomes invalid. However, they can say "Amen" when not in Salat. Instead of Amen, the Shi’a say Al-Hamdu Lillaah. (See Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh’habs, Vol. 3, page 331. Also Fiqh according to the five Madh’habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya, page 111).

Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi’I, and Hanbali: As Mustahab (preferable) they say Amen after reading the Fatiha during Salat. They follow what Abu Hurairah once recommended to utter "Amen" after Al-Fatiha, but the Shi’a claim that the specific narration was not credible. (See Bukhari, Section Salat. Also Fiqh according to the five Madh’habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya, page 111).

13. Sura: While the Shi’aa complete (not partial) Surah has to be said following Al-Fatiha during Salat, and without this rule the Salat is invalidated. Other Madh’habs are divided about this point, for instance, with the Hanafi portion of a Surah is sufficient, even one Ayah.

14. Qunoot: Qunoot is saying a Du’aa, usually a passage from the Holy Quran. Qunoot is highly recommended (preferable) with the Shi’a, since the Prophet (PBUH) used to do so. Qunoot is not practiced regularly in the other Madh’habs during regular Salat, though the Prophet (PBUH) used to practice it but more than 40 years later Mu’awiya stopped it. (See Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh’habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 3). However, Qunoot is said during Subh Salat (morning prayer) by the Maaliki and Shafi’i. As to the Hanafi and Hanbali, they say Qunoot during Witr Salat in various manners.

15. Forefinger: the Shi’a do not point with the forefinger while in Tashah’hud. The Hanafi and Shafi’I do point with the forefinger and even move it in a circular manner, as a preferable (Mus’tahab) procedure.

16. Toe: While the Shi’a are to sit comfortably on the folded feet during Tashah’hud, the Hanafi are to sit on the twisted left foot while the big toe of the right foot is touching the floor.

17. Tashah’hud: The Shi’a follow the version of Tashah’hud as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (PBUH).

The Hanafi follow the Tashah’hud taught by Ibn Masood, quoting the Prophet (PBUH).

The Maaliki follow the Tashah’hud taught by Ibn Omar, quoting the Prophet (PBUH).

While the Sahafi’I and Hanbali follow the Tashah’hud taught by Ibn Abbas, quoting the Prophet (PBUH).

18. Tasleem: The Shi’a follow the version of Tasleem as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (PBUH). Tasleem is a Must (Wajib). The Hanafi, Shafi’I, and Hanbali do Tasleem in various forms as appears in Sahih Bukhari and Muslims. It is regarded as Wajib (a Must) by the Maaliki, Shafi’I and Hanbali; and as Sunnah by the Hanafi (See Kashf Al-Ghumma, Al-Sha’rani, vol. 2, page 220. Also Mus’nad Ahmad, Vol. 2, page 162).